Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation for Parkinson's disease|
P. K. Doshi, N. A. Chhaya, M. H. Bhatt
High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is known to ameliorate the signs and symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease. Aim: We studied the effect of high frequency STN stimulation in 23 patients. Method: Twenty-three patients suffering from severe Parkinson's disease (Stages III-V on Hoehn and Yahr scale) and, particularly bradykinesia, rigidity, and levodopa-induced dyskinesias underwent bilateral implantation of electrodes in the STN. Preoperative and postoperative assessments of these patients at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months follow-up, in "on" and "off" drug conditions, was carried out using Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Hoehn and Yahr staging, England activities of daily living score and video recordings. Results: After one year of electrical stimulation of the STN, the patients' scores for activities of daily living and motor examination scores (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale parts II and III) off medication improved by 62% and 61% respectively (p<0.0005). The subscores for the akinesia, rigidity, tremor and gait also improved. (p<0.0005). The average levodopa dose decreased from 813 mg to 359 mg. The cognitive functions remained unchanged. Two patients developed device-related complications and two patients experienced abnormal weight gain. Conclusion: Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. It reduces the severity of "off" phase symptoms, improves the axial symptoms and reduces levodopa requirements. The reduction in the levodopa dose is useful in controlling drug-induced dyskinesias.
Subthalamic nucleus, Parkinson's disease, deep brain stimulation, Dyskinesia.