Spectrum of epilepsy in tuberous sclerosis|
Anisya-Vasanth AV, Satishchandra P, Nagaraja D, Swamy HS, Jayakumar PN
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal dominant disease that affects the brain, skin, eye, heart and kidney. The diagnostic criteria for tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) have recently been revised. There are relatively few Indian studies on this disorder. Twenty-six patients diagnosed as having TS over a period of 18 years are being reported. The onset of seizures ranged from infancy to adolescence. The patterns of epilepsy encountered were generalized tonic clonic seizures (13), complex partial seizures (10), simple partial seizures (9) and myoclonic jerks (4) including infantile spasms (3). Patients often had more than one seizure type. Nineteen patients were mentally subnormal. Cutaneous manifestations were facial angiofibroma i.e. adenoma sebaceum (20), shagreen patches (7), hypopigmented macules (6), ash leaf spots (4), café-au-lait spots (2), facial hypoplasia (2) and periungual fibromas (1). One patient each had retinal phakoma and renal angiomyolipoma. CT scan revealed sub-ependymal calcifications (12), parenchymal tubers (3), cerebral edema (3) and cortical atrophy (1). One patient had enhancement of peri-ventricular sub-ependymal lesions on MRI. Anticonvulsants prescribed were phenobarbitone (20), diphenyl hydantoin (14), carbamazepine (8), sodium valproate (4), benzodiazepines (4), ACTH (2), prednisone (1), mysoline (1) and vigabatrin (1). Most patients were on combinations of anti-convulsants and response to therapy was usually not very satisfactory. However, the child treated with vigabatrin did well.
Epilepsy, facial angiofibroma, hypsarrhythmia, hamartin, sub-ependymal nodules, tuberin, tuberous sclerosis, vigabatrin