A comparative study was made between sympatric isolates of Schistosoma mansoni
: one from a wild rodent (R) Nectomys squamipes and another one from humans (H) isolated from a low endemic schistosomiasis transmission area in Brazil. Our purpose was to detect differences between them concerning chaetotaxy (number and pattern of distribution of the argentophilic papillae) of the cercariae by means of silver impregnation. No significant difference (x > 0.05) between isolates was noted. Nevertheless, a significant difference (x < 0.05) was observed in the cercarial index (ratio of the distance between the first and the second preacetabular papillae and the distance between the first and the second dorsal preacetabular papillae) of male and female cercariae in both isolates. Males presented a greater cercarial index than females. By means of multivariate analysis, male cercariae were distinguished from female cercariae through the following characteristics: average number of dorsal papillae on the right quadrant, average number of ventral middle papillae on the right quadrant (H isolate) and average number of dorsal middle papillae on the left quadrant (R isolate). The results suggest that R and H isolates belong to the same population that could complete its life cycle in rodent-snail-rodent fashion.