The purpose of this study was the evaluation of Helicobacter pylori
infections in children and adults from two indigenous communities of Delta Amacuro State, Venezuela, that differ in hygienic conditions of the housing. The evaluation was performed in 98 children (mean age 7 ± 3.37 years) and their mothers (33.96 ± 13.77 years) from two communities of Warao lineage. Anti-H. pylori
serum IgG and secretory anti-H. pylori
IgA antibodies were de-termined, as well as total secretory IgA and H. pylori
antigens in feces. Serological prevalence of H. pylori
infection was 38% in children and 84% their in mothers. Children from the community that had the most deficient sanitary and hygienic conditions had significantly lower titers of specific IgG antibodies and total secretory IgA (P < 0.0001) and a high percentage of them had H. pylori
antigens in their feces (P < 0.0001). The levels of specific IgA were similar in both groups. The results indicate that in these populations there is a high prevalence of H. pylori
infection and that poor hygienic conditions can increase the risk of infection and damage to the gastrointestinal tract.