Experiments were carried out to analyze the biological characteristics of two sympatric isolates of Schistosoma mansoni derived from humans and murines in a low endemic transmission area (Sumidouro county, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Sympatric reared-laboratory Biomphalaria glabrata
and C3H/He mice were used as experimental hosts. Parameters assessed comprised: precercarial period, infectivity and mortality (snails), prepatent period, infectivity (percentage of cercariae maturation into adult worm) and intestinal egg count (mice). The murine isolate showed a shorter precercarial period and higher infectivity than human isolate (p < 0.05). This biological heterogenicity did not correspond to the vertebrate data because any biological parameter presented significant difference (p > 0.05). These data suggest that both isolates are local sub-populations, providing support for the hypotheses that in a same biotope mixed populations or sub-populations circulate among their main host (human beings) and/or rodent as an anfixenous infection.