In order to better understand the epidemiological transmission network of leishmaniasis, an endemic disease in Northeast Brazil, we investigated the susceptibility of Spix yellow-toothed cavies ( Galea spixii
) to the Leishmania infantum chagasi
parasite. Nine cavies were experimentally infected, separated into three groups and monitored at 30, 90 and 180 days, respectively. Amastigotes were identified in the spleen slides of two cavies killed 180 days after infection. Antibodies against the L. i. chagasi
were identified in one of the cavies. This demonstrates that G. spixii
is in fact capable of maintaining a stable infection by L. i. chagasi
without alterations in biochemical and hematological parameters of the host and without perceivable micro and macroscopic lesions.