A fish-infecting myxosporean, Henneguya hemiodopsis
sp. n., found infecting the gills of Hemiodopsis microlepis and collected from the Poty River near the city of Teresina, Brazil, was described based on ultrastructural studies. The parasite occurred within large whitish polysporic plasmodia (up to 200 μm in diameter) containing asynchronous developmental sporogonic stages, mainly mature spores. The spores measured 19.7 ± 0.9 μm in total length (n = 30) and the ellipsoidal spore body was 10.8 ± 0.5 μm long, 3.3 ± 0.4 μm wide and 2.5 ± 0.5 μm thick. The spores were composed of two equal shell valves adhering together along the straight suture line, with each valve having equal-sized caudal tapering tails measuring 8.7 ± 0.6 μm in length. The spores were surrounded by a thin anastomosed network of microfibrils, more evident on the tails. There were two symmetric elongated bottle-like polar capsules 3.5 ± 0.3 μm long and 1.0 ± 0.2 μm wide, each with a polar filament with five to six coils. Given the morphological and ultrastructural differences from previously described parasites and the specificity of the host species, we propose a new species, named H. hemiodopsis sp. n.