Liver transplant seems to be an effective option to prolong survival in patients with end-stage liver disease, although it still can be followed by serious complications. Invasive fungal infections (ifi) are related to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiology of fungal infections in Brazilian liver transplant recipients is unknown. The aim of this observational and retrospective study was to determine the incidence and epidemiology of fungal infections in all patients who underwent liver transplantation at Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital between 2002-2007. A total of 596 liver transplants were performed in 540 patients. Overall, 77 fungal infections occurred in 68 (13%) patients. Among the 77 fungal infections, there were 40 IFI that occurred in 37 patients (7%). Candida
species were the most common etiologic agents. Candida
species accounted for 82% of all fungal infections and for 67% of all IFI, while Aspergillus species accounted for 9% of all fungal infections and for 17% of all IFI. Non-albicans Candida
species were the predominant Candida
isolates. Invasive aspergillosis tended to occur earlier in the post-transplant period. These findings can contribute to improve antifungal prophylaxis and therapy practices in Brazilian centres.