In Brazil, malaria still remains a clinically important febrile syndrome for local populations and travelers, occurring mostly in the Amazon Basin. This review aims to report the main efforts employed to control this disease since the 1940s and the emergence of Plasmodium falciparum
and Plasmodium vivax
chemoresistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine among other drugs. Additionally, in vivo, in vitro and molecular studies as well as malaria chemoresistance consequences on disease morbidity and policy treatment guidelines were commented.