Evaluation of spatial and seasonal variations in surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques|
Pejman, A. H.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Karbassi, A. R.; Mehrdadi, N. & Esmaeili Bidhendi, M.
In this study, spatial and seasonal variations of water quality in Haraz River Basin were evaluated using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, principal component analysis and factor analysis. Water quality data collected from 8 sampling stations in river during 4 seasons (Summer and Autumn of 2007, Winter and Spring of 2008) were analyzed for 10 parameters (dissolved oxygen, Fecal Coliform, pH, water temperature, biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, total phosphate, turbidity, total solid and discharge). Cluster analysis grouped eight sampling stations into three clusters of similar water quality features and thereupon the whole river basin may be categorized into three zones, i.e. low, moderate and high pollution. The principle component analysis/factor analysis assisted to extract and recognize the factors or origins responsible for water quality variations in four seasons of the year. The natural parameters (temperature and discharge), the inorganic parameter (total solid) and the organic nutrients (nitrate) were the most significant parameters contributing to water quality variations for all seasons. Result of principal component analysis and factor analysis evinced that, a parameter that can be significant in contribution to water quality variations in river for one season, may less or not be significant for another one.
Cluster analysis; Factor analysis; Principal component analysis; River; Water pollution