A new species of the genus Triplophysa
was discovered in underground water of a cave near Nijiao Village, Qiubei County (24°05′N，104°01′E), Yunnan, China, in 2002 and 2006. The new species, Triplophysa qiubeiensis
is similar to T. anterodorsalis
Cao et Zhu (1989), and can be distinguished from all the cave-dwelling Triplophysa
in China by the following characters: 1) eyes highly degenerated vs. eyes normal; 2) branched dorsal–fin ray 7 vs. 8－9; 3) caudal fin forked vs. emarginate. The new species is also similar to T. macromaculeta
Yang (1990) from the same river system, Nanpan Jiang, but can be distinguished from the latter the following characters: 1) eyes highly degenerated vs. eyes normal; 2) without blotches vs. with blotches; 3) caudal fin forked vs. emarginate.