Field surveys of Nanla River, located on the southwest border between China and Myanmar, were conducted in January and from May to June of 2008. Based on field surveys and historical records, there are a total of 42 species belonging to 4 orders, 14 families, and 34 genera in Nanla River. The species of Cypriniformes are dominant, including 27 species, accounting for 64.3% of the total number of species. Siluriformes and Perciformes both have 6 species, accounting for 14.3% of the total. The number of species of Synbranchiformes is 2, 4.8% of the total. Hemibagrus wyckioides
is listed in the China Species Red List. Pangasius sanitwangsei
, with a suspected distribution through the Nanla River, is listed in the China Red Data Book of Endangered Animals and China Species Red List. Fish fauna taxa of the Nanla River is dominated by 'old Tertiary groups', which mainly occur in tropical rivers and flood plains, and is the typical group of fishes in tropical Southeast Asia. Based on the ecology type, bottom-dwelling and omnivorous fishes are dominant. Finally, the causes for the listed statuses are briefly summarized as water pollution, overfishing and impacts of introduced species.