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African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development
Rural Outreach Program
ISSN: 1684-5358
EISSN: 1684-5358

African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND)

A Peer Reviewed Journal

Information to Authors and Guidance for Reviewers 


Any manuscript that does not conform to the guidelines and referencing style of AJFAND will be returned to the author with no comments

*Attach the checklist to your manuscript*

The African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND) is a peer reviewed journal. The journal is envisaged to enable dissemination and sharing of food and nutrition information issues on the continent. It taps social science, biochemical, food and nutrition related research and information. It also addresses issues related to agriculture, food security, and nutrition that affect Africa's development and people's livelihoods. It targets and is intended to serve the research and intellectual community; African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and development oriented bilateral and multilateral agencies; and African public institutions working towards solving food and nutrition problems and addressing issues on the African continent. AJFAND is open to both African and non-African contributors. Besides academic research, the journal provides an avenue for sharing information on national-level food and nutrition programs. It is anticipated that four issues will be produced every year, with each issue combining research, programs and policy aspects.  

The printed version is available mainly in English, with certain parts of it in French. Already, the journal is accessible in full, on the internet at in English. The website will increasingly be interactive, where topical issues can be discussed and debated. Announcements of relevant upcoming events can be sent in time for the printed version and anytime for the website. 


Manuscripts for peer review will be accepted for consideration on condition that they are submitted exclusively to the African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND). All materials submitted for publication must be typed in double line space on numbered pages and should conform to the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals [1]. A word count excluding abstracts and references must be given in all submissions. Manuscripts must be submitted electronically ONLY [as attachment via email]. Every author should be prepared to submit a copy of his or her passport- size photograph in 'hard' form, when and if the manuscript is submitted for publication. Hard copies are preferred for better photo quality printout.


The corresponding author should email a consent letter to the Editor-in-Chief before the manuscript goes for publication. The corresponding author should ensure that the details of the co-authors are provided as follows: names, qualifications, designation and current address(es) including fax and email. Credit for authorship requires substantial contributions to: (a) conception and design, or analysis and interpretation of data (b) the drafting of the article or critical revision for important intellectual content and (c) final approval of the version to be published. Please note that only electronic correspondence will be responded to.


Original articles and Reviews: Should be between 3000 and 4000 words, with a maximum of eight tables or other illustrations. Original articles should present data and information from original research. Reviews must be critical analyses of the subjects reviewed, giving the current and balanced view of all the issues, for instance controversies. Reviews should be contributed by authorities and experts in their respective fields. The message carried in both reviews and original articles must be clear, succinct and of significance. An abstract of between 300-400 words must be included. Copies of related papers already published and any non-standard questionnaires used should be submitted. This requirement is important where details of study methods are published elsewhere or when the manuscript is part of a series eg part 2 of a series where part 1 has been published elsewhere. References should be between 40-60 for review articles and not exceeding 30 for original articles. For original articles, results and discussion should be presented separately.

Short communications: Should not be more than 1000 words and contain no more than one illustration. These should focus on any interesting findings/news an author wishes to convey to the readers of AJFAND. The abstract should be in prose form.

Letters to the editor: Must not be more than 500 words; contain no more than one illustration and no more than five references. The abstract should be in prose form.

Peer Review

The AJFAND is a peer-reviewed journal. Every article submitted first receives editorial review. If it is consistent with the editorial policy and conforms to the basic guidelines, it is sent to three knowledgeable and experienced reviewers. Occasionally, the Editor may return a paper to the authors with suggestions for improvements before it is submitted to the reviewers. To avoid unnecessary delays, the author is encouraged to visit the website and to consult the immediate past issue for the format.

If at least two reviewers agree that the paper should be published in AJFAND, it is accepted and either sent immediately for copy-editing or returned to the authors for consideration of the suggestions from the reviewers and the Editor. If the reviewers do not agree with each other, the paper is either sent to further reviewing or the editor takes a decision. In this case, the author (s) are given a chance to respond to the reviewers' comments.

Authors are under no obligation to effect changes suggested by the reviewers as long as they can justify their position.

Key words

A maximum of five key words should be added at the bottom of the abstract in reviews and original articles.


The AJFAND requires use of the number system of referencing. All references, whether quoted directly, paraphrased ideas (Indirect quotation) or acknowledging information obtained from another writer or source, should be documented within the text by numbering [in square brackets]. Remember, references should only come at the end of the sentence.



In-text citation

Try as much as possible to put reference numbers, boxed [ ], at the end of lines. There are cases where this may not be possible: Kenya and Sierra Leone [1987]

A 1999 United Nations study found increasing incidence of obesity in all developing regions [1].

End reference

1. Gardner MN, Halweil AO, Lincoln NN, Guba EG, Parry J and JM Nono Introduction to Ophthalmology. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 1989: 188-194.

Note: Consistency and accuracy in referencing is critical and it is the responsibility of the author to ensure this. We encourage checking and double-checking.

Article/Chapter in a book

Use the word "In" before the name of the editors, use editor (s) initials after the name (s).The year should appear at the end followed by a semicolon, the chapter (in bold), full colon and then page numbers eg 1986; 6: 51-53

In-text citation

Over 50 % of the absolute poor in developing countries are found in rural areas [2]. Confirming that poverty still remains a rural phenomenon.

End reference

2. Spencer N Poverty and Child Health in Less Developed Countries. In: Odoro JM and EM Kimani (Eds). Poverty and Child Health. Oxford, UK and New York, NY: Radcliffe Press, 1996: 74-94.

Articles from journals, magazines and newspapers

Titles of journals or newspapers should be abbreviated and in italics (eg J. Agric. Food. Chem). The title of the published article should not be underlined.

In-Text citation

Different standards of food safety between importers and exporters may lead to concerns about food safety of imported food [3].

End reference

3. Lock G and S Jongelin Maximizing Return Rates in School Based Research. Afric. J. Food. Nutri. Sci. 1994; 1: 13-14

The title source and journal abbreviations should conform to those in (Index Medicus), year, volume and inclusive page numbers. Personal communications, unpublished data and manuscripts "in preparation" or "submitted for publication" are unacceptable.

Figures, tables and illustrations

Illustrations should be carefully chosen and only those that make a valid point in the construction of the article will be used. Half tone figures should be submitted as photographs (Glossy prints). Color reproduction will not be possible unless the contributor meets the cost: please, contact the Editor for further details. For easy reference, put figures within the text.

Tables should be provided at the end of the text each on a separate page, double-spaced and a title provided for each.

Symbols and numbering should be clear and large enough to remain legible after reduction to fit the width of a single column. Legends for illustrations should be on a separate sheet and should not appear on the illustration. Definitions of any abbreviations that appear on the figure should be provided.


Numbers one to ten are spelt in full unless in conjunction with units (eg 2 ml, 3 mm); numbers above ten appear as 11, 101, 1001. Also eg and ie will be printed without stops. Type out the word percent when the number is spelt out, but use the % symbol when using numbers.

Note that in quoting scientific names, the genus takes a capital letter and the species a small letter. Such names are either underlined or italicized. Foreign words and phrases should not be underlined.


Published material in the AJFAND is covered by copyright. Authors transfer all rights to the journal upon publication. The Editor must grant permission for use of any published material.


1. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Ann. Intern. Med. 1997; 126: 36 - 47.

The Editor-in-Chief
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development(AJFAND)
P. O. Box 29086-00625, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: +254-02-2737989, Fax: +254-02-2737989, Email:


  1. Hazell BR Managing Agricultural Intensification. "A 2020 Vision for Food, Agriculture, and the Environment." IFPRI Brief, 2000.
  2. Clayton AN and RNJ Radcliffe Sustainability: A Systems Approach. West View Press; 1996.
  3. Bloom DE and S Sachs Geography, Demography and Economic Growth in Africa. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2, 1998: 1-16.
  4. Giddens A Globalization. In: Runaway World. The BBC Reith Lectures, 1999.
  5. Eberstadt N Population, Food, and Income: Global Trends in the Twentieth Century. The True State of the World. 1995: 7-48.
  6. FAO. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Agriculture: Towards 2010. FAO, Rome, 1993.
  7. Bongaarts J Population Policy Options in the Developing World. Science 2000; 263: 771-776
  8. Jaycox VKE Lessons From Two Decades of Involvement in Rural Development in Africa. In: SA Breth (Ed). Overcoming Rural Poverty in Africa. Geneva: Center for Applied Studies in International Negotiations 1999: 30-35
  9. Amartya S Poverty and Famines. An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1981.
  10. FAO. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The State of Food and Agriculture. FAO, Rome, 2001.
  11. World Bank. Assessing Aid: What Works, What Doesn't and Why. Washington, D.C. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  12. Gathiru K Soil Fertility and Productivity Status in East Africa region. In: MM Tenywa , MA Bekunda and A Lufafa (Eds). Participatory Soil Fertility and Land Improvement in Uganda. Challenges and Opportunities. 2001.
  13. Foster AM Assessment of Socio-economic Benefits of Sasakawa Global 2000 Interventions in Uganda. 2001.
  14. Eicher CK Institutions and the African Farmer. Third Distinguished Economist Lecture. CIMMYT Economics Program, 1999.
  15. Waggoner P How Much Land Can Ten Billion People Spare for Nature? Council for Science and Technology, Ames, Iowa, 1994.

CHECKLIST [Self-Administered]

Note: This checklist should be submitted with the manuscript
[Please communicate with us electronically and send your manuscript as an attachment-MS WORD]

Title of paper: ______________________________________________
Author (s): ________________________________________________
Corresponding author: _______________________________________
Consent of co-author (s): _____________________________________
Name and address of corresponding author: _______________________
Name and address of co-authors (s): _____________________________

(a) Abstract: 300 to 400 (for review and original articles)
(b) 3000 - 4000 for review/original articles (excluding abstract and refenceces)
(c) No more than 1000 for personal communication:
(d) Not exceeding 500 for Letter to the Editor




(a) Numbered correctly as cited within the text and in square brackets
(b) In-text and end-text citation consistent
(c) Between 40-60 for review articles
(d) Not exceeding 30 for original articles
(e) Not exceeding five for Letter to the Editor
(f) Key words not exceeding five



Figures and tables
(a) Cited consecutively in the text
(b) Are captions appropriate?
(c) Tables placed at the end, but part of the text
(d) Figures placed within the text
(e) A maximum of eight figues for review/original articles
(f) A maximum of eight tables for original/review articles
(g) Definitions of abbreviations that appear on tables and figures provided
(h) Symbols and numbering clear and large enough




Category of article clear (i.e. original or review article, Letter to the Editor, personal communication, commentary):

Because we don not charge to publish articles, we expect the author to take full responsibility over the quality of the article. Thus manuscripts not conforming to this self-administered checklist will be returned. Please, attach the checklist to your manuscript.

AJFAND Guidance for Reviewers
For authors as well:

The review process involves sending papers to at least two experts for review. Thereafter, any potentially acceptable paper may also be sent to our statistical adviser.

The manuscript is a confidential document. Please do not discuss this document with anybody else. Any communication with the author of the manuscript must be done through the Journal Editorial office.

The referee provides advice to the Editor-in-Chief, who makes the final decision, together with members of a well selected panel and the newly constituted Oversight Editorial Board. We will normally pass on your comments (anonymously, of course) to the author.

As a practice, the author and the reviewer are not known to each other unless otherwise requested by either party. In any case, such disclosure and communication is facilitated by the Editor-in-Chief of AJFAND.

Even if we do not accept a paper, we would like to pass on constructive comments that might help the author to improve the paper, or in preparing a fresh paper. For this reason, please give detailed comments (with references, where appropriate) that will help the Editor-in-Chief to make a decision on the paper and the authors to improve it. Send detailed comments separately and make your recommendations and any confidential comments to the Editor-in-Chief on a covering letter, by electronic means. Corrections can also be made on the actual text itself, and highlighted for the benefit of the author and the editor.

The broad aspects that we would like comments on include:

Focus: The focus must be research and development linkages; is this the case here?

Originality: (truly original or known to you through foreign or specialist literature)
Originality is our major criterion for case reports
- Scientific reliability
- Overall design of the study
- The research undertaken-adequately described and the conditions defined

Methods: - Adequately described?
- Appropriate

Results: - Relevant to problem posed?
- Credible
- Well presented (including use of tables and figures)?

Interpretation and conclusions: - Warranted by the data?
- Reasonable speculation?
- Is the message clear?

References: - Up to date and relevant?
- Has the most current literature been used?
- Any glaring omissions?
- As per AJFAND requirements?

Importance of the work: - Suitability for AJFAND and overall recommendation.
- Appropriate for general readership or more appropriate for special journal?
- If not acceptable, how can the paper be made so?

Other points: - Ethical aspects
- Need for statistical assessment
- Presentation (including writing style)

Editorial address to which manuscripts should be sent:
The Editor-in-Chief
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development (AJFAND)
P. O. Box 29086-00625, Nairobi, Kenya
Tel: +254-02-2737989
Fax: +254-02-2737989

Last updated January 2004.

Copyright 2004 - Rural Outreach Program

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